Conversion Optimisation & SEO Glossary

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A/B Testing

A/B or split testing is when you send traffic to two (or more) different variations of a page or adverts to see which one ‘converts’ more (customers, sales, leads, etc.). You can test small changes such as button copy or colours, as well as whole-page redesigns. Any minor or larger changes should be A/B tested to show the exact lift gained from the change.

Above the Fold

Content that sits ‘above the fold’ is content that most users see on a page when they land on it. The fold is an invisible line that separates content that all or most visitors see from the content that most visitors don’t scroll down far enough to see. The average landing page has its fold at the one-third point on the page, with users not scrolling down the see the remaining two-thirds of the page. Visitors should be communicated to effectively above the fold to reduce bounce rates.

Alt Text

Alt text or alternative text is a word or series of words that are often inserted as an attribute in images to tell viewers (and search engines) the description or contents of an image. Alt text is useful when an image is not available because of a broken or changed URL. These should always be optimised for efficient SEO.


Analytics (in marketing) is the practice of measuring and analysing performance data such as amount of visitors or time spent on a web page. Most marketers regularly make an effort to understand their analytics in order to measure the impact of their work and see how they can maximise their return on investment. Mostly commonly, analytics are used to compare data before and after a marketing campaign or initiative to see what difference it made. The most popular web analytics tool is Google Analytics, which allows you to measure site traffic, e-commerce conversion rates, track goals and events, as well as compare new data to previous periods. Having yours set up properly is a must.

Anchor Text

Anchor text is the clickable text in a link on a webpage. It is often blue and underlined. Good anchor text will be relevant to the page that it is pointing at such as ‘Examples of xyz’, rather than generic text such as Click Here or See more. Having this optimised can bring huge wins for SEO and Conversion Rates.

Our Conversion Rate Optimisation
sees an average lift in conversion rate of

Anxiety Relief

Anxiety Relief is a psychological concept of addressing and alleviating conscious and unconscious anxieties that website visitors have when they land on a new site or page. Common anxieties include security and privacy, while other anxieties are more specific to the product(s) or service the company offers. For instance, users might need reassuring that a product is right for them, will arrive on time, and that they are protected by a money back guarantee if they change their mind. Having each anxiety addressed at the right time can increase conversion rates and decrease bounce rates.


Authority is one of Cialdini’s 6 Psychological Influencers. People respect and trust authority and they want to follow the lead of real experts. Giving the appearance of authority increases the likelihood that others will comply with requests or complete an online request more confidently. An example of this is using pictures of real doctors to sell cold medicine, or Formula One drivers to sell engine oil.


Banner Adverts

Banner adverts are adverts that are displayed on websites that sell advert space. These banners are usually image-based and are often tailored to the user’s past web or search history. These banner ads are usually charged per click or per impression, depending on which server delivers the ad. By using psychology on your banners you can usually double their efficacy.

Banner Blindness

Banner blindness is a phenomenon where visitors to a website consciously or unconsciously ignore banner-like information, which can also be called ad blindness or banner noise. It is estimated that the click-through-rate on most banner adverts is less than 1% as a result. This is a learnt behaviour so users are used to ignoring ‘annoying’ adverts. It is therefore vital that banner adverts are appealing and relevant to the viewer with a clear, enticing call-to-action.

Basket Abandonment

Basket Abandonment is a common issue that occurs on e-commerce sites. Users that add items to their basket often change their minds or get distracted and leave the site without returning to complete their order. Basket
Abandonment can be resolved by getting users back onto the site and into the sales funnel. This can be done with retargetting banner adverts, follow-up basket abandonment e-mails and stopping users from exiting the basket altogether with pop-up offers. Having your basket abandonment issues addressed is key to making your PPC and SEO more efficient and your website more profitable.

Our Basket Page Optimisation
sees an average lift in revenue of

Basket Optimisation

Basket Optimisation is the act of testing, updating and tweaking a Basket Page to ensure as many customers as possible continue on to the Checkout process and complete their order. Optimising the Basket page is a multifaceted task that involves investigating any doubts customers may have about the company’s product or services and ensuring they are equipped with all the information they need in order to complete their order confidently. This is missed by most website developers and where we often find the biggest wins; with our methodology and psychological principles, we can get increases of 35% overnight.

Behavioural Economics

Behavioural Economics is a method of analysis that applies psychology and human behaviour to explain economic decision-making. We often use this method in Product Pricing Optimisation to help guide users to choose the right price option and in turn, the use of Behavioural Economics often increases revenue significantly.

Behavioural Targeting

Behavioural Targeting is a technique used by marketers to increase the effectiveness of their ad campaigns. This is done by collecting information on an individual’s browsing behaviour, including the pages they have visited or the searches they have made, to select which advertisements to display to ensure the highest click-through and conversion rates. Having behavioural targeting in place ensures that visitors see products they actually want, and increases sales.

Below the Fold

The opposite of Above the Fold. Any elements that sit below the average fold on the page are ‘below the fold’. Users have to scroll to see these elements.

Bounce Rate

A page’s bounce rate is the percentage of users that land on a page and exit it without clicking through to another page. In order for it to count as a ‘bounce’, the user has to have only viewed one page on the site.
By applying psychology to webpages we make them more ‘sticky’ and the bounce rate reduces as a result. This means that people interact with the site better and is a strong metric to follow.


Breadcrumbs or RDFA are links that show the journey that the user has been on the site, or the structure of the site content. For instance, Home > Clothing > Shoes > Black Pumps. Adding these can boost SEO traffic as it shows search engines the structure of the site.


Call to Action

A call to action is an instruction to the audience to provoke an immediate response usually using an imperative verb. Examples are ‘Call us now’, ‘Find out more’, ‘See how [x] can help you’. These are often used on websites in the form of buttons or links.
Generally speaking, call-to-actions on website are often neglected, yet when optimised can bring in huge wins, sometimes by over 100%.

Call Tracking

Call tracking is a way of measuring the success of a website as a call generation tool. This is done by collecting data on how many users convert from the site into leads or sales calls.

Our Checkout Optimisation
sees an average lift in sales of

Checkout Optimisation

Checkout Optimisation is the testing, updating and improving of online Checkout and payment processes. The checkout usually entails completing a form with contact, personal, shipping and payment details. The ultimate goal is to reduce the rate of abandoning customers: common reasons for abandonment include shipping costs, form errors, length of process and security issues. Using our knowledge of psychology and our research methodology, we can urge users to move quicker through the checkout process and intentionally address any anxieties that customers may have.

Click Through Rate (CTR)

Click-through rate (CTR) is the percentage of users who click on a specific link or element. It is usually used to measure the success of online ads and marketing e-mails.


Clickbait is a type of content that is purposefully written to provoke a visitor and intrigue them, causing them to click through on a headline to read or see more. The main purpose is to attract attention and draw visitors to a particular web page. An example of this is ‘Look at these 10 ways to feel happier every day. Number 3 is surprisingly easy!’


Commitment (and Consistency) is one of Cialdini’s 6 Psychological Influencers. It works by playing on the power of people’s dislike for backing out of deals or going back on promises. We’re more likely to do something after we’ve agreed to it verbally or in writing, since people strive for consistency in their commitments. Using this principle across your website can be extremely powerful, particularly when used in Checkout processes.

Content Marketing

Content Marketing focuses on creating and distributing valuable, relevant and shareable content to attract and retain a well-defined audience. The idea is that a brand with strong content will grow more site traffic and ‘loyal’ followers that eventually convert into paying customers. It is also a way of growing organic SEO traffic as search engines look favourably upon keyword-rich, relevant content that adds value to their users. In current times and considering Google’s current ranking factors, a content strategy should always form part of an SEO strategy.

Control / Control Variable

The control of an experiment is the variable that is held constant in order to assess or clarify the relationship between the other variables. In most website experiments, the Control is the original page that need optimising.

Conversion Rate

A conversion rate is the percentage of site visitors that ‘convert’ into customers/sales/leads. Conversion rates are calculated by taking the number of conversions and dividing that by the number of total visitors during the same time period. For example, if you had 50 conversions from 1,000 visits your conversion rate would be 5%, since 50 ÷ 1,000 = 5%. By applying psychology, we generally see this increase by 116%.

Conversion Rate Optimisation (CRO)

Conversion rate optimisation (CRO) is a system for increasing the percentage of visitors to a website that convert into customers, or more generally, take any desired action on a webpage.
Conversion rate optimisation is the fine art of increasing the percentage (or amount) of visitors that end up taking a chosen action (such as downloading a brochure or purchasing a product). Our methodology on average increases conversion by 116%.

Our Conversion Rate Optimisation
sees an average lift in revenue of

Conversion Strategy

A conversion strategy is a plan of action or a ‘workflow’ that an organisation, business or marketing team can work to in order to optimise the conversion rate of their website (or other marketing channels). `A conversion strategy lays out the modules of research, planning and implementation work and can boost your business dramatically over a period of months. Our strategies generally range from 1 to 18 months.


A cookie is a small amount of data generated by a website that is saved onto your web browser. Its purpose is to remember information about you, like what pages you’ve visited, what forms you’ve filled out and what images you have seen. In a conversion context, we use them in several ways; one example is using them in a basket page so that the site remembers what items are in a user’s basket (for an indefinite amount of time).

Cost Per Acquisition (CPA)

The total cost of converting someone. Cost Per Acquisition is the ultimate metric for any marketing department because you don’t want to spend more money to convert a customer than they’re worth once they convert. You can work this out by taking the total spend on the given marketing channel divided by the amount of successful conversions for a given period. Conversion Rate Optimisation generally reduces the CPA.

Cost Per Click (CPC)

The cost-per-click is the amount that a click-through on an advert, banner or link costs. While you can’t optimise the CPC, Conversion Optimisation you can make more people click on the advert using psychology and optimise the landing page or website to ensure more of these clicks convert to a sale.

Cross Selling

Cross-selling is the act of offering similar or related products to customers who are already considering a product. So, if you were shopping for a new pen, cross-sellers would offer you a new notebook to go with it. A conversion strategy should ensure that cross selling is integrated and working optimally to increase average order value.


E-mail Capture

E-mail capture is a tool used to collect e-mail addresses from visitors and customers. This can be done by offering free services or whitepapers in exchange for an e-mail address, or by offering subscriptions to newsletters. Optimising your e-mail capture fields can ensure more people sign up/exchange their e-mail for what you promise.

E-mail Marketing

E-mail marketing is directly marketing a message to a group using e-mail. Generally speaking, every email sent to a potential or current customer could be considered email marketing. This includes order confirmation e-mails, lead generation emails, newsletters, weekly updates or even personal, one-to-one sales e-mails. A strong conversion strategy should always utilise e-mail marketing, as it is the quickest, easiest and cheapest way to speak directly with customers and potential customers.

Our Exit Intent Optimisation
sees an average lift in transactions of

Event Tracking

Event Tracking is a method of logging user interaction with your website elements such as buttons, download links, images and videos. You can set your website goals to record specific events such as users clicking the ‘Add to Basket’ button on the product page, or visiting the contact page, depending on what the goal of your site is.

Exit Intent / Exit Pop Up

An ‘exit intent’ pop-up is a webpage overlay that is only displayed when a visitors is about to exit the page they are on. The pop-up senses when the user goes to click the exit button or speeds up the motion of the mouse. Pop-ups can be used to interrupt exiting visitors and stop them from leaving by offering an incentive, or conveying value to address a specific anxiety they may have at that moment in time. Often exit pop-ups show offers, discounts and other value points to convince the user to stay and use the site.

Eye Path

The eye path of the page is the natural way that the human eye follows content on a page. This can be controlled or manipulated with colour and content to ensure visitors follow a certain visual path from your chosen starting point to a final point such as a call-to-action or piece of information.



Site filtering or refinement is a way to narrow down a product or data search. Most successful e-commerce sites will have filters to help visitors find exactly what they want to the specifications they need. Examples include being able to filter by colour, price and brand. This is a great way to increase conversion rates, as well as helping SEO if done properly.

Form Optimisation

Form Optimisation is the process of psychologically auditing, updating and testing of website forms (such as Contact forms, white-paper forms, newsletter sign up forms, or checkout processes) to ensure as many users as possible complete the form and don’t drop off or exit the form mid-completion. Form Optimisation usually includes the reduction of psychological friction, ‘boiling down’ the process to as few steps as possible, and adding privacy or security assurances. We generally find that by applying our methodology, we can get increases in leads from 22% to 130%.


Friction elements on a page are those that cause users to ‘slow down’ or stop travelling through the conversion funnel. It is the psychological resistance that your visitors experience when trying to complete a task on your site, such as fill out a form or get to the bottom of a page. Friction is a conversion killer usually caused by unclear messaging, lack of information or poor layout. Our psychology-based conversion audit identifies all points across your site and suggests the best fixes to remove (or reduce) the friction, which increases conversions and sales as a result.

Setting up a proper sales funnel will show you exactly
where your customers are exiting your site


A conversion funnel is an analogy or metaphor (often depicted as an image of a funnel) used in e-commerce to describe the way a consumer navigates an e-commerce website or through a process of webpages. The metaphor of a funnel is used to describe the decrease in numbers that occurs at each step of the process. With conversion optimisation, we apply psychology throughout each stage of the funnel to plug the ‘leaks’ and ensure more people convert into paying customers.



Gamification is applying the principles of ‘gaming’ to motivate participation, engagement and loyalty. Simple examples include ‘points’ or ‘reward’ systems (such as those you get when you shop at Tesco), and more complex examples include apps, games and campaigns that focus on making brand engagement fun and memorable.
Most frequently, gamification plays on customers’ sense of status and achievement – they want to ‘win’ (either prizes or status) and beat others. When applied to an e-commerce website, it can have profound results.

Geo-targeting/Geo Location

Geo targeting is the method of determining the geolocation of a website visitor and delivering different content to that visitor based on his or her location, such as country, city, organisation, IP address or other criteria and displaying content based on their location. A conversion audit identifies areas where geo-location can help increase relevance to your clients, which in turn increases revenue.

Google Trusted Store

A Google Trusted Store is a direct endorsement from Google. According to Google, a GTS much “offer a consistently great shopping experience.” Merchants’ benefit by the boost in credibility, which naturally leads to more sales. We class this as an anxiety reliever in the form of an accreditation, which helps boost the ‘authority’ of a website and increases trust. Our conversion audit identified areas of anxiety and recommends accreditations that are relevant and where to place them specifically for maximum impact on the conversion rate.

Growth Mindset

Having a growth mind-set is the belief that you can develop and grow in every situation that life throws at you. The key traits of someone in growth mind-set include:

  • Having a strong desire to learn
  • Persistence when faced with a set back
  • Taking on criticism and learning from it
  • Looking to build positive traits which they see in others, such as those around them who are successful or inspirational
  • Believing they are in control of their success, it isn’t down to luck but their own personal efforts
  • Always taking the positive from every situation

The whole field of conversion optimisation is based on constantly being in growth mind-set. It is believing your website can always be improved in order to boost sales and improve your customer’s experience. A growth mind-set is vital for a conversion optimiser as there is always something new to learn.

Guerrilla Testing

Another way to describe user testing or usability testing. Guerrilla testing involves getting real users to test designs, software, websites or applications that have been designed with a human user in mind. These tests are done with the intention of finding faults with systems and having users try to ‘break’ the system with their approach from a lay perspective. Often, guerrilla testers are asked how they would improve a system or what functionalities they would want to see in order to make the system easier. Guerrilla testing forms part of our methodology.



A heatmap is a visual way of representing website data. A heatmap will show how users engage with a webpage; areas that are orange, red or ‘white hot’ will be where the majority of users scroll, click or hover their mouse. Areas that are green blue or dark will be parts of the page that have no or little engagement. Heatmapping is ideal for confirming our psychological analysis and hypotheses. It is also a great tool for showing where visitors may click (such as banners, images and other elements) that aren’t clickable links.

Hero Image

A hero image is a large banner image, prominently placed on a web page in the front and centre. Most homepages have one hero image above the fold. By updating the hero image based on psychological principles, it can help support the purpose of the page and increases sales as a result.

Heuristic equation

A heuristic is a thought tool that can be used to approximate a value. When you don’t know exact numbers, or you can’t quantify a value exactly, a heuristic can help you express a value as the sum of many other contributing values.
For instance, C = 4m + 3v + 2(i-f) – 2a is a heuristic for a website conversion (C), wherein: a customer must be motivated to stay on your page (m), be met with a clear value proposition (v), have an incentive to take action (i), will experience a degree of friction (f) or resistance during the process and anxiety (a) about entering information or committing to a purchase.
By applying this conversion heuristic to clients’ websites, we get a clear picture of where we can get the biggest gains.

Homepage Optimisation

Homepage Optimisation is the testing, updating and improving of website Homepages to ensure that users that land on the homepage do not ‘bounce’ and continue on to other pages and into the sales funnel. A strong homepage has an exceptional Value Proposition, as well as answer the vital three questions: Where am I? What can I do here? Why should I do it?


Landing Page

A landing page is the first page that a visitor lands on as a result of traffic acquisition (such as clicking on an advert, search engine results or a referral link). As a landing page can be a homepage, product page or any other page on your site, it is important it has been optimised for conversion to ensure the visitor takes a positive action (such as add the product to their basket, or fill out a contact form). Our Landing Page Optimisation Module can look at stand-alone pages and optimise to increase conversions.

Layered Navigation

Layered Navigation is made up of categories and filter attributes that organise product data on e-commerce websites. Most websites have at least two levels of ‘layers’ on their websites, where sub-categories sit under category labels. An example of this is Clothing > Tailoring > Blazers.
Implementing optimised layered navigation can have a huge impact on both SEO and conversion rates – as search engines can read the site structure easier and visitors can find products quicker.

Lead Generation/Lead Gen

Lead generation describes the process of capturing and catching the interest of a potential customer in a product or service for the purpose of developing a sales pipeline. Websites that do not sell their products or services online (i.e. not e-commerce sites) are often referred to as Lead Generation websites.

Lifecycle Emails

Lifecycle e-mails are a chain of e-mails that are designed specifically for different stages in the conversion funnel. These are often e-mails or triggers that are sent automatically after a certain amount of time, or after a user takes a certain actions such as download a guide or buy a product. These users then get a set of ‘nurturing’ e-mails in a series to get them back into the sales funnel, or to repeat their business.

Lifetime Value

The lifetime value of a customer is how much net profit can be attributed to the entire future relationship with him or her. Many of our clients often forget that their ad spend isn’t just for one click if a customer is treated well, cross-sold to properly and remarketed to post-sale; customers can and will convert time and time again if this is the case. This is a why a conversion optimisation strategy is so important, as it increases the lifetime value of a customer significantly.

Our Conversion Strategies
Can be tailored exactly to your website’s needs

Live Chat

A Live Chat function is a real-time or instant messaging system between a customer or lead with a member of the company or organisation they are dealing with. Live Chat functionalities are usually used to assist customers that need support, or have further questions about a product of service. The conversations from these chat systems are perfect for planning a conversion strategy, as you can assess what is wrong with your site from the queries and questions customers have. Live Chat can also be used as a real-time sale closer.

Loss Aversion

Loss aversion refers to peoples’ tendency to prefer avoiding losses to acquiring gains. Most studies suggest that losses are twice as powerful, psychologically, as gains. Loss aversion is most often used on e-commerce websites in the form of countdown timer, low stock level ‘warnings’ and limited sale offers.
When used properly, it can be a very powerful tactic and can increase sales dramatically. Our main audit and Loss Aversion module notes areas that this tactic can be used.

Loyalty Program

A loyalty programme is one that rewards customers for their brand loyalty or commitment to a brand. Customers that repeat orders, or choose to purchase (or use services) from a brand more than once are rewarded for doing so, incentivising them to repeat this behaviour.
Psychologically speaking it can be a great move, as people will buy from a brand they are loyal to due to the perceived value of said brand, instead of the actual cost. Acquiring a new customer can cost between 15-20% of their first purchase for some retailers, so offering points worth 5-10% to get previous customers back to buy more can help increase the ROI from that initial acquisition cost. This is why some of the biggest retailers such as Boots and Tesco’s have such successful loyalty programmes in very competitive markets.


Mental Model

A mental model is a learned behaviour or thought process that represents how an individual believes something works or should work. In most cases, Mental Models become second nature, whereby the individual assumes the consequence that will occur after taking an action. An example of a Mental Model on a website is that clicking on the company logo will take the user back to the homepage. When Mental Models are broken or not considered, this usually results in bad on-page User Experience and in turn, low conversion rates due to people not liking or easily using the website.

Meta Titles & Descriptions

Meta titles and descriptions are HTML attributes that should provide concise explanations of the contents of web pages. These snippets of text are commonly used on Search Engine Results pages to display a preview for a given page.
They should, like a book spine and cover, convey value and entice people to ‘read’ the book, explain what the book contains as well as help the librarian organise the library shelves. Google is your librarian.

Multivariate Testing

Multivariate testing is a technique for testing a hypothesis by testing multiple variables at once; it follows the same principles as AB testing, except that there are more than two versions of a page being tested. The goal of multivariate testing is to determine which combination of variations performs the best out of all of the possible combinations.

Our Split Tests
see an average lift in conversion rate of


Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP)

Neuro Linguistic Programming is an approach to interpersonal communication, personal development and psychology. It has grown in the last 10 years to have a huge following, and was founded by Richard Bandler and John Grinder in the 1970s.
We use NLP communication practices in our Conversion Optimisation as it ensures we communicate our clients’ products and services clearly, and efficiently for the biggest impact.

Neuro Marketing

Neuro Marketing is a branch of marketing where research and studies of consumer behaviour, psychology and cognitive responses to marketing stimuli are used to decide what marketing initiative should be taken.

Neuro Science

Neuro Science studies the brain using FMRi for electrical changes in response to certain stimuli. These finding are used in web design and in relation to behavioural changes on websites such as UX or conversion rate optimisation. We keep up to date with the latest Neuro Science Studies and research to ensure we are using the most up-to-date findings to keep at the forefront of our industry.

Newsletter Optimisation

Newsletter Optimisation is the auditing, testing, updating and improving of e-mail newsletters to ensure more customers engage with the email, and ultimately, to ensure that the conversion rate from the newsletter has increased. A ‘conversion’ can be counted as a click-through (on a call-to-action button or link), sharing the e-mail or using a discount code featured on an e-mail message. A strong Newsletter Optimisation strategy will ensure that the e-mail is strong on all device types (desktop, mobile and tablet), as well as engaging, eye-catching and perhaps most importantly: has a strong subject line to ensure open rates are high.


Order Confirmation Email

An order confirmation e-mail is a standard protocol response to completing an online order. Users receive an e-mail confirming that their payment or order has been accepted.
Order confirmation e-mail optimisation is missed by most of our clients; it is prime real estate and should add value to the company’s service and in most instances is a great way of cross-selling other products.

Organic Traffic

The traffic coming to a website through non-paid search engines results is called organic traffic.


Page Value

Page Value is the average value (usually in pounds or dollars) for a page that a user visited before landing on the goal page or completing an e-commerce transaction (or both). By utilising a conversion optimisation strategy, you will see each page’s value increase as sales increase.

Past Customer Survey

A past customer survey is a survey of a company’s previous customers. Questions often centre around their experience with the company/product/service, as well as asking for ideas on how it can be improved. Most researchers make the mistake of priming their audience when asking them research questions, meaning that their data is often skewed. By applying our psychology knowledge to these questions, we ensure that customers are not ‘primed’ to respond in a certain way and that the data we get is rich and full of genuine insights.

Persistant Basket Cookies
can lift the conversion rate of your site by

Persistent Basket Cookie

A persistent basket cookie is a snippet of data that is stored on a user’s browser so that the contents in his or her basket is ‘remembered’. This means that if the users leaves the site and returns another time, the basket contents are still there, ready for purchase. It is often an overlooked feature of websites – even though it is such an important one.


It is the practice of customizing web pages (or any other digital content) to individual visitors’ interests or preferences. By personalising content (such as using the user’s name, or by displaying products that the user has viewed) it is not only easier for customers to purchase, but it also builds rapport with the customer meaning they are more likely to buy.

Personality Type

A personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of individuals. Typically, there are 16 ‘types’ of personality as espoused by Briggs Myers.
These 16 types are a combination of four parts:

Introvert/Extrovert (I/E)
Sensor/Intuitor (S/N)
Thinker/Feeler (T/F)
Judger/Perceiver (J/P)

When someone is profiled or ‘typed’, the result could be ESFJ. This tell us that the person is extroverted, and does their best thinking through speaking and draws their energy from being around people. They are detailed, so they need specifics when buying or making a decision. They make decisions based on their gut feeling over logic – so they are likely to enjoy interactive experiences online. Lastly, they are structured and like making decisions quicker than their opposite type. Knowing these precise types of a user’s personality can help us tailor their online experience and improve conversion rates dramatically as a result.

PPC Landing Pages

A PPC landing page is the first page that a user lands on after clicking a PPC (Pay Per Click) Advert (usually through Google Adwords). These can be optimised to lead visitors directly into the sales funnel. By having a landing page strategy for your most important keywords and products, you can help drive more traffic, lower your PPC spend and convert significantly more of it into sales too.


Priming is a psychological phenomenon that ‘prepares’ a person to think or act in a certain way. In most cases it is used to get people to think a certain way before completing a task. For instance, companies often prime users to get used to high prices with RRPs (Recommended Retail Prices), which are then ‘slashed’ to prices that seem significantly lower in comparison. This way, the customer feels as if they are getting a good price for said product.
Product Listing Ads Product Listing Ads are Google Shopping adverts that include more product information, such as a product image, price, brand and product reviews, without requiring additional keywords or ad text. These can be set up using the Google Merchant Centre and managed in Adwords. By optimising Product Listing Ads, you can see a good increase in product sales. Many e-commerce sites miss this critical part of PLA.

Product Page Optimisation

Product Page Optimisation is the auditing, updating and testing of e-commerce product pages to ensure as many users as possible choose to buy your products. Product pages are often key landing pages that have to display as much information, imagery and assurances to convince the customer that the company or brand provides the best service or product compared to the competition. Optimising product pages is one of the biggest wins and should form part of a conversion optimisation strategy.

Our Product Page Optimisation
sees an average lift of

Product Sorting

Product Sorting is a way of filtering, rearranging or reordering products so that customers can find products easily. Most category pages have ‘Sort by’ functionalities, which allow products to be sorted by price, newness, alphabetical order or stock level. Helping visitors find the product they are looking for faster can increase conversion by as much as 300%, thus being a very important part of a conversion strategy.


RDFa Breadcrumbs

RDFa (or Resource Description Framework in Attributes) Breadcrumbs provide links back to the previous page the user navigated through to get to the page they are on, or to the parent pages of the current page. A common example of this is: Home > Category Page > Product Page. Not only are RDFa breadcrumbs a great way for users to navigate around a website, but they are also favoured by search engines, as it shows them clearly how the site is structured, which means they can rank pages better in the search engine results. It is an important part of an SEO strategy that many sites miss out on.


Reciprocity is one of Cialdini’s 6 Psychological Influencers. It implies that humans are wired to want to return favours and pay back debts. In short, people are keen to treat others as they’ve been treated; this is often an unconscious response. It is often found that if people are given things for free, they feel indebted to the source that is came form; most commonly, brands that give away free whitepapers, downloads or resources on their websites take advantage of this key influencer. The power of reciprocity has been widely tested and proven time and time again. This is why we always include it in our Main Conversion Audit.


Remarketing is re-engaging customers that have already bought from your company. This is often done through e-mail, or a series of follow-up, post-sale adverts aimed at getting customers back again. Ensuring your after-sale follow up marketing is in place and optimised is a core part of a conversion optimisation strategy. Remarketing is often confused with Retargeting.

Responsive Design

A website with responsive design adapts its layout to that of the viewing environment (mobile, desktop or tablet) to provide an optimum viewing and usage experience to visitors. A conversion optimisation strategy should always look at a responsive site as if it were 3 websites and optimise the experience for at least three screen sizes.
Retargeting When website visitors are shown ads/banners about the things they earlier browsed but didn’t convert, it is known as retargeting. Retargeting is used to push those visitors for a conversion who have already shown some interest in the website. Retargeting is often confused with remarketing.

Rich Snippets

Rich Snippets’ (also known as Schema) is the term used to describe data mark-up that you can add to your HTML. This is done to allow search engines to better understand what information is contained on a web page. Common examples are product pricing or recipe information – rich snippets ensure that the information appears in the search engine results page.

The ROI of our conversion optimisation services can be measured down to the penny.

ROI (Return on Investment)

The ROI is a popular metric for measuring the financial return of a particular activity. For instance, if it cost you £100 to advertise a product, and the advertising brought in £1,000 worth of revenue, the ROI would be £900 (1,000 minus 100 is 900). The ROI is usually expressed as a percentage, so in this case it would be 900%. The formula for this is: ROI = (Gains – Cost) / Cost.

It is crucial that all marketing spend is measured by a strong ROI. Conversion Optimisation (when done right) offers a particularly strong ROI as every cost and gain is measurable down to the penny.



Similar to Loss Aversion, Scarcity is one of Cialdini’s 6 Psychological Influences. Scarcity is a psychological tactic that marketers use to push visitors towards a conversion. Scarcity takes advantage of the human fear of shortage and loss. Examples include: “”Only 7 left in stock”” and “”13 others are viewing this product.
Things that are scarcer are generally perceived to be more valuable. Things that are more valuable are wanted more, especially when someone tells us that we can’t have them. A proper conversion strategy will include applying scarcity to your products to ensure their value is clear, so people take action and buy from your site.


A scrollmap is similar to a heatmap, although is shows you how many site visitors scroll down a page. It is perfect to confirm hypotheses as to whether a page is engaging enough or too long.

Site Search Box Optimisation

Site Search Box Optimisation is the improvement, testing and updating of the site’s search functionality to get more people to use it and to get more conversions out of it. Is it commonly understood that users that use a search functionality are 6 times more likely to buy from a website, since they are actively looking for a specific product. It is therefore crucial to optimise this part of your website to ensure that customers find exactly what they are looking for.

Security Assurances

Security Assurances are elements on a website that assure and plainly state the high level of security on a site. These usually come in the form of security padlocks from McAfee, VeriSign and Norton.
Security assurances are a form of anxiety relief when placed within the right proximity and in the right point in the pages’ conversation.

SERP is an acronym for Search engine Result Pages. The ultimate goal of SEO is to make websites appear on the top of a SERP, which in turn increases relevant traffic – and sales.


A sitemap a hierarchical list or map of all the web pages within a website or pages associated with a domain. They are important as they provide clear guidance for search engines of how your site is structured, which means they can find and index the pages instead of relying on them to crawl each page and following every link.

Adding Social Proof to your site can boost your online reputation.

Social Proof

Social proof is one of Cialdini’s 6 Psychological Influencers. It is based on the understanding that people assume the actions of others are correct or right and want to copy them. Since people are often very likely to believe others, they unconsciously seek information like past customer testimonials, product reviews and trust badges on websites.

Split Testing

See AB Testing.


SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a security technology for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser; the result is having an https:// URL rather than http://. It is common practise for e-commerce sites to have these installed to reassure customers that online purchases are protected.


A survey is a common research method that entails asking a selection of users a set of questions. In the context of web marketing, the users are usually site visitors, past customers or potential visitors. The purpose of the survey can vary, and surveyees are often incentivised with prizes or rewards in return for completing the survey. When combined with psychological analysis of the site in question, and with behavioural analytics data surveys become extremely powerful in optimising websites for conversions.


Trust Badges

Trust badges are small logos or icons that display accreditations or approvals to visitors about the safety, legality, quality and credibility of the website. They are an anxiety reliever, which means that the add specific anxieties visitors have during the sales process. Trust badges can be in the form of security badges for secure shopping or business organisation accreditations that ensure you are buying from recognised distributors. Auditing a website and addressing these anxieties by researching the required assurances need by users is key for a strong conversion strategy.


Unique Visitor

A unique visitor is a distinct, individual visitor to a website. If a website has 10 visits, and all of the users returned once to the site after their first visit, then the site has 5 unique visitors. Optimised SEO should bring in as many unique visitors as possible, and CRO should ensure those visitors keep coming back and buying from your site.

Integrating intelligent cross-selling and
upselling to your site can lift sales by


Upselling is a practice of offering a higher value (and usually more expensive) product/service to a customer that is showing interest in a product. For instance, a customer looking to buy a TV that is 30inches might be offered a 34-inch TV as an alternative for a slightly higher price.
Upselling is a great way to increase average basket values of orders, which can help increase wesie revenue. Any serious conversion strategy should include optimising the websites’ upselling technique.


Usability refers to the ease of use of a website or application. The usability of a website can be tested by experts or by actual users (for which the design is intended).
Usability is an important factor in a conversion strategy, as it will identify reasons why visitors ‘can’t buy’ instead of ‘won’t buy’.
User experience/UX Use experience refers to a user’s experience with a product, application or service. The first requirement for a great user experience is to meet the exact needs for the usage of a product or a service, without causing confusion or delay. Bad user experience is often counter-intuitive, unnecessarily complex and boring.
Many people confused UX with Conversion Optimisation. They are fundamentally different as UX aims to optimise the user’s experience with a website or an application, while Conversion Optimisation aims to ensure that the user converts into a paying customer or a lead. For instance, a UX designer might add a game to an e-commerce websites’ homepage; this might increase the engagement levels and the enjoyability of the site, but sales might go down because no one knows where or how to begin shopping. Just because something is good for UX, it does not mean that it is good for conversion rates.

User Generated Content

UGC is content in the form of text, images and videos that is created and submitted by users or customers rather than writers from companies or brands. UGC is a great way to grow a website with relevant content. Having a bigger site with lots of relevant content help the site appear on Google Results Pages better.

User Testing

When the usability of a website is tested with the help of real people, it is called User testing. It can be done in the two ways:
1. By inviting potential users to use your website, and observing the problem areas in usability.
2. By evaluating a website based on the behaviour of real visitors by using tools like clickmaps and heatmaps.
A successful conversion strategy should understand its potential customers, and user testing is a great way to do that.


Value Negative

An element that has a negative value is one that takes away from the processes perceived value, or suggests that the value behind the action is low. An example of a value negative call-to-action is ‘Submit’ or ‘Fill out our form’. We find that clicks can improve by 50% on average as a result of guiding the visitor with value positive statements and call-to-actions instead of negative ones.

Value Neutral

An element that has a neutral value is one that is neither negative nor positive. Most value neutral call-to-actions merely state or re-emphasise the action required from the user; examples are ‘See more’ or ‘Enter competition’.

Value Positive

An element that has positive value emphasises the positive value of completing said process e.g. ‘Save money now’, ‘Pay securely now’, ‘Win a £500 voucher’. Strong value positive call-to-actions should also guide the visitor through the sales funnel. This is one of the most important (and easiest) changes to implement when optimising a website. We map out each statement by user intent throughout each of our clients’ sites to ensure it is optimised effectively.

Value Proposition

In a nutshell, value proposition is a clear statement that explains how your product solves customers’ problems or improves their situation (relevancy), delivers specific benefits (quantified value), tells the ideal customer why they should buy from you and not from the competition (unique differentiation).
We have found for years that 98% of the sites we audit do not have effective Value Propositions. Often, Value Propositions are weak and lack specificity – these need to be optimised to ensure the visitor has all of the information in order to be convinced of a company’s value. Value Proposition formulation is a methodical process, which often results in huge gains for our clients.


Web Marketing

Web marketing, or online marketing, refers to advertising and marketing efforts that use the web and e-mail to drive sales or leads. This can be in the form of paid advertising, organic traffic or affiliate marketing.

Web Psychology

The study of people’s behaviour online. It looks at online behaviour through the lens of psychology and behavioural economics and attempts to explain why customers act the way they do.
When approaching CRO from a psychology perspective, you can apply many changes to a site instead of testing changes based on ‘gut feeling’. This is where we’re different.


Whitespace is a design strategy which involves using blank spaces for directing attention towards a valuable website element such as a CTA. This is often effective on sites with a lot of images and text, where the use of white space is a great contrast to the ‘busier’ elements on the page.

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